The process of recalling information from memory--one's effort to remember what has been learned previously and to actively bring it to the forefront of one’s mind. Practice implies that retrieval reoccurs periodically after the information, concepts or ideas are initially learned...
The process of distributing multiple study sessions over a period of time to improve long-term retention--refers to breaking up the time allocated to study into shorter sessions rather than devoting a large amount of time to a subject in a single sitting...
The process of making associations between new information, concepts and ideas and what is already known in order to achieve superior learning and performance. When engaged in elaboration, learners call on preexisting knowledge and synthesize it with...
The process of mixing up materials studied or skills practiced in a study session rather than focusing on a single topic or skill; long-term retention + the ability to apply what is known to new situations improve when related concepts or skills are studied in parallel.
The understanding of how one thinks and learns. It involves planning, monitoring, assessing and adapting one’s efforts to learn, understand and perform. Metacognition practices increase one's level of awareness of his/her/their strengths and weaknesses.
People believe that their cognitive abilities are not innate or "fixed" but instead can develop through dedication and hard work. When students develop a growth mindset, they are more willing to take on challenges and learn from both their successes and their failures.